mutual funds


The first presentation of a mutual fund in India happened in 1963 when the Government of India launched Unit Trust of India (UTI). UTI enjoyed a monopoly in the Indian mutual fund market until 1987, when the host of other government-controlled Indian monetary organizations set up their own particular funds, including State Bank of India, Canara Bank, of and by Punjab National Bank.

A mutual fund is basically a trust which is made up of money which is collected from investors or public through the sale of units for investment in securities such as bonds, stocks, and money market instruments.

Structure – Mutual Funds in India

Mutual Funds in India basically have a 3-level structure.

  • Sponsor (first level)
  • Public Trust (second level) and
  • Asset Management Company (third level).

Sponsor is any individual who himself or in association with another corporate, builds up a mutual investment. The Sponsor looks for approval from the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). When SEBI approves it, the sponsor makes the Public Trust according to the Indian Trusts Act, 1882. Since trusts have no legitimate identity in India, the Trust itself can’t enter into contracts. Therefore, Trustees are authorised who are appointed for the benefit of the Trust. The instrument of trust must be as a deed between the Sponsor and the trustees of the mutual fund enlisted under the arrangements of the Indian Registration Act. The Trust is then enrolled with SEBI prompting the formation of mutual investment. From now on, the Trust is known as mutual fund. Sponsor and the Trust are two separate elements.

The Trustee’s part is only to act as inside controllers of mutual funds where they see, regardless of whether the money is being overseen according to the objectives. Trustees appoint the Asset Management Company (AMC), to oversee money gathered through offer of mutual fund units. The AMC’s Board of Directors has at least 50% of independent directors. The AMC is also approved by SEBI. The AMC operates under the supervision of its Board of Directors, the direction of the Trustees and SEBI. AMC in the name of the Trust floats new schemes and manage these schemes by purchasing and selling securities. So as to do this, the AMC needs to follow all rules and directions endorsed by SEBI and according to the Investment Management Agreement, it signs with the Trustees.

Charges and taxes to shell out on Mutual funds

Nothing in life comes at free. Everything has its own cost and cost here doesn’t necessarily mean in monetary terms it may be in any context. Similarly investing in mutual funds is not free, you’ll have to pay certain charges whatever applicable as per your investment. Also, the question arises that the charges and taxes that you are paying is one time or not. The following are the charges and taxes that you have to pay while investing in mutual funds in India:


  1. Entry load: Whenever you purchase a mutual fund a charge is levied by an asset management company (AMC) which is known as Entry load. This charge is applicable only once. This charge may result in a hike of your buying
  2. Exit load: Whenever you sell off your units before a stipulated time a charge is levied by the AMC which is known as Exit load. This is likewise a one-time charge. From a more extensive point of view, these charges support you as an investor. Mutual funds utilize these charges as an obstruction so you don’t leave the investment avenue without gaining substantial benefits. These charges are also implemented to protect different investor who are with the fund for a more extended time as any investor’s exit could increase the cost for other investors. The exit load is charged as per the pre-defined holding period cut-offs. The AMC may not impose any charges if the fund’s goal is to be a short-term The exit load is usually between 1-3% relying upon the exit timeline specified by the AMC.
  3. Transaction Charges: Since 2011, SEBI has enabled AMCs to gather a nominal charge if the investment is above Rs. 10,000. This is the last one-time direct charge until further notice. On the off chance that the investment sum is not as much as Rs. 10,000, at that point no investment charge would be imposed. The investment charges are Rs.150 for a new investor and Rs. 100 for a current investor. In the event of systematic investment plan (SIP), if your aggregate investment is more than Rs.10,000, a transaction charge of Rs.100 would be payable in 4 equal instalments.
  1. Expense Ratio: The expenses brought about by the AMC are not borne by them; they are borne by the investors. This is charged day by day and the day by day NAV is balanced. The charges that AMC can incur are fund management charges, promoting/offering costs, Audit charges, Registrar expenses, Trustee charges and Custodian expenses. Of these charges, fund management charges and promoting/offering costs could be charged by the AMC at their own discretion. The other charges are the Actual costs/expenses that the AMC will actually incur while dealing with the funds.
  1. Other Indirect Charges: When an AMC proposes a new fund offer, it incurs certain charges too. These charges can be 6% of the total net assets and can be adjusted in over a time of 5 years. There are other minor one-time charges when you do investment into mutual funds. On the off chance that you put resources into ETFs, you have to open an account. You need to pay maintenance charges and intermediary charges too. Mutual funds are additionally required to pay a security transaction tax imposed while purchasing and offering This is also ultimately borne by the investors.


  1. Tax Deducted at Source: Tax deducted at source or TDS is the duty that the government gathers on the profits on your investment. This is usually 10% of the There would not be any tax on the dividend distribution or re-purchase proceeds to Indian resident investors.
  2. Securities Transaction Tax: This tax is relevant just on funds managing equities, subsidiaries and mutual STT can be gathered for offering and acquiring through stock exchange. STT isn’t appropriate for debt, debt-oriented or commodities mutual funds.
  3. Dividend Distribution Tax: The dividend distributed by debt-oriented mutual funds schemes is also taxed as dividend distribution tax (DDT). This extra duty isn’t relevant for any equity oriented
  4. Capital Gains Tax: The administration demands capital gain tax on investment that should be long-term however are cashed in the short term. For equity oriented schemes, capital gains tax isn’t material if the fund is held for over a For debt oriented scheme, there is no capital gain tax if the investment is held for over 3 years.


When you can invest into stocks or government securities all alone, you may feel that you needn’t bother with professional help to oversee such investments. You could not be right. Investing into the market isn’t just picking stocks and forget about them. The procedure turns out to be genuinely complex when more than two or three stocks and fixed income securities are included and practically impossible for any average financial specialist. With professionally managed Mutual Funds, you can be guaranteed that your speculations are overseen by individuals with years of involvement and experience with market analysis. They will have enough learning to take calls purchasing and offering those stocks and different investments. You may not really have that sort of learning or time to deal with individual stocks or fixed income investments. With mutual funds you get:

  • Flexibility
  • Right amount of diversification
  • Professional managers
  • Accessibility
  • Liquidity
  • Tax benefits


– Raghav Ajmera

D.E.S’s Shri Navalmal Firodia Law College

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